Friday, March 13, 2020
Insomnia Literature Review Essays Insomnia Literature Review Essay Insomnia Literature Review Essay Currently scientists and researchers are studying insomnia and discovering more and more about the disorder with each experiment these experts are performing. Researchers at Clemson University executed an experiment on how Insomnia and sleeping problems similar to those of insomnia affect social functioning. Approximately four hundred students were gathered together to help with testing and results have not come back yet. (Medication, Into. , 2012) Another study showed that listening to music could help prevent insomnia. This research used fourteen females and six males. The scientists picked ten people to use the new HIRED system and other normal aids and the other ten people were to be put in the wait-list control group. (Medication, Into. , 2012) Hundreds of other projects, research, experiments, and studies are going on to find out more about insomnia and how it can be cured or prevented. The articles used for the current events on insomnia agree and disagree on several things. One way in which every single one of the articles agree is by saying that when people get more sleep, those people will get rewarded somehow in the long run. A few of the articles that were used in studying this disorder agreed that sleeping more at night could help those people lose weight. One article that was used said that sleeping pills and tranquilizer could increase a persons risk of death, #4, 2010) while another article used in this research said that prescription pills could be used to prevent insomnia. (Medication, Into. , 2012) With the research that is currently being put towards this disorder, researchers should start to agree more on insomnia and ways to prevent or cure it. An article that was used made the statement that pills prescribed or bought ETC to cure or prevent insomnia can actually increase a persons risk of death. (#4, 2010) Heath Ledgers death in 2008 caused a lot of confusion and curiosity as what sleeping pills are really doing for people. When an autopsy returned after Ledgers death, the results showed that he had Axon, Valid, Restorer, and several other drugs to aid his prescription medicine and multiple amounts of those medicines could be fatal. Another article said that Americans suffer from insomnia more, compared to other countries. #8, 2012) With this being said, Americans should start to wonder why that is true and how it can be changed. Problems that were in some of the current event articles for this disorder were weight gain and weight loss and how insomnia can cause these things. By getting a lately amount of sleep, weight loss could be a result. (Medication, Into. , 2012) Doctors have recently been saying that the solution to weight loss is not as simple as eating healthy, working out and sleeping more, but that sleeping behaviors should not be disregarded when trying to lose weight. Another source says that when people suffering from obesity lose weight, better sleep will also be an outcome. Another problem that was in an article used for this research was Heath Ledgers death. His death was a huge eye opener and extremely tragic for most of society. Ledgers death roved to us that consulting a physician about medications is necessary and mixing certain pills can be a matter of life or death. (#4, 2010) The information used to complete this research seemed to be correct except for one questionable article. The only misleading article was one that said taking sleeping pills could increase your risk of death. (#4, 2010) Along with that, the article continued on to say that someone who doesnt smoke, drink, and is physically fit would have their mortality rate increase by thirty six percent. What the researchers said was not wrong, but it was misleading due to the fact that the scientists said aging sleeping pills could cause a persons life to end earlier than necessary. If this article had been typed out more carefully and clearly, confusion wouldve most likely been avoided. Insomnia rates are increasing extremely fast in America and it is affecting Americans in a negative way. Productivity, weight gain or obesity, social abilities, depression and even death are some of the possible side effects of this disorder. Hopefully with all the research being put into this disorder, scientists can learn of more ways to decrease Americas insomnia rates and discover how to prevent insomnia. Thanks to researchers work, people now know that getting more sleep cause benefit them in many ways. Benefits that were discovered through the research for this assignment include, improved alertness, reduction in pain, weight loss and/or decreased body fat, aid for ones depression, stable appetite, improved memory and productiveness, prevention of breast cancer, and also longer life expectancy. If people sleep, on average, at least seven hours per night and no more than nine hours each night, they can gain these benefits as well. When and if this ever happens for America, the results could be astounding.
Tuesday, February 25, 2020
Critiqing two of my peers - Essay Example ments because of the evidence presented, such as the statistics on accidents concerning underage drinking, and the fact that childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s brains are developing and they should not be stunted with alcohol. Its weakest argument is the one arguing for alcohol-related illness it is true that drinking at a young age can lead to cirrhosis, but it is not something particular to the age group being analyzed in this essay. All alcohol drinkers can develop these diseases, so saying this is not something that is directly relevant to the claims. The essay does not mention a counterargument. A counterargument that I would suggest is: Ã¢â¬Å"Opponents of setting the drinking age limit at 21 will stress that the age 18 is already a mature age for adolescents, so they should be given the freedom to drink what they want.Ã¢â¬ A response to this is providing evidence that people at the age of 18, who drink and drive, meet more accidents than people at 21, who drink and drive. Does the author use signal phrases to introduce quotes? (Signal phrases are discussed in more detail in section 10g of The New Century Handbook. ) If so, provide an example. If not, suggest the correct way to do this. Yes, the author uses signal phrases to introduce statistics, for example: Ã¢â¬Å"According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention more than 189,000 children under the age of 21 are admitted to the emergency room annually because of alcohol.Ã¢â¬ He did not use direct quotations though. If he did, he can write one sentence this way: Ã¢â¬Å"Direnfeld (2012) describes a few different diseases that are related to alcohol, such as cirrhosis of the liver.Ã¢â¬ The quotations followed proper in-text citations, although the page or paragraph number is missing. For instance, this has no paragraph number: : Ã¢â¬Å"According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention more than 189,000 children under the age of 21 are admitted to the emergency room annually because of alcohol.Ã¢â¬ The paragraph number is 1,
Sunday, February 9, 2020
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Cup cake can make us happy Essay An afternoon spent whipping up cakes, biscuits and pies doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t just make your kitchen smell amazing, it can also help alleviate stress, anger and even depression. Baking enthusiast Alix Walker reveals why itÃ¢â¬â¢s making us very happy Photography: Patrice De Villiers Baking: Pamela Giles Supermodel Karlie Kloss may have appeared on 20 magazine covers this year alone, but she still finds time to send the editors at US Vogue her homemade toffee at Christmas. She also spends the night before important shoots baking her Perfect 10 Kookies (milkbarstore. com) to calm her nerves. I may be a good foot shorter (and wider) than Karlie, but we do have something in common. Two weeks before my wedding I decided it would be a brilliant idea to bake my own four-tiered wedding cake. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t like I was already about to internally combust with stress or anythingÃ¢â¬ ¦ When we launched Stylist I worked until 2am for three months but I still spent my first weekend off making a giant gingerbread house. When IÃ¢â¬â¢m feeling stressed and overwhelmed, like my brain canÃ¢â¬â¢t quite focus and my heart is a bit racy, I bake. John Whaite, the winner of The Great British Bake Off 2012, has spoken about how baking helped with his depression. He says, Ã¢â¬Å"You can turn the destructive into the creative just by stirring some sugar and eggs. Working through the steps of a recipe in a methodical way means you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have time to concentrate on everything else that is whirring through your mind. Ã¢â¬ Spending an afternoon in icing sugar is certainly becoming an increasingly popular pastime. The fourth series of The Great British Bake Off started on BBC Two last Tuesday night, hoping to draw in even more viewers than the 7.2 million who watched last yearÃ¢â¬â¢s series finale. Sales of baking paraphernalia have shot up at John Lewis; cult baking clubs like Band Of Bakers and Clandestine Cake Club are popping up around the country; and owning a KitchenAid is suddenly as prestigious as possessing an Alexander Wang bag. And this is not a hobby just for the retired: 287 Stylistreaders lovingly crafted everything from a Ryan Gosling cake to the perfect afternoon tea in our competition to bake this weekÃ¢â¬â¢s cover (click here to read an interview with Pamela Giles, who baked the winning cover), showing the passion for baking among professional 30-somethings. WeÃ¢â¬â¢ve fallen back in love with this age-old hobby for a simple reason: it makes us happy. In an increasingly fast-paced and unpredictable world, baking has become the modern womanÃ¢â¬â¢s stress buster. Today, we spend eight hours a day in front of a computer screen and rarely have something tangible to show at the end of it. Modern technology means we donÃ¢â¬â¢t switch off until we actually sleep. Baking is the antithesis to this. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s physical. Methodical. It canÃ¢â¬â¢t be rushed. Follow a recipe step by step and youÃ¢â¬â¢re almost (almost) guaranteed a certain result. There is calm in its predictability; reassurance in its simplicity. Unconvinced? Type Ã¢â¬Ëstress bakeÃ¢â¬â¢ into Google and nearly seven million entries flash up. In addition,the Depressed Cake Shop, a series of baking pop-ups, appeared throughout the UK this month to recognise the power of baking to soothe (not cure) depression. And author Marian Keyes wrote her first cookbook Saved By Cake after a newfound passion for baking pulled her out of depression: Ã¢â¬Å"To be perfectly blunt, my choice sometimes is: I can kill myself or I can make a dozen cupcakes. Baking makes me focus. It is sort of magic Ã¢â¬â you start off with all this disparate stuff and what you end up with is so totally different. Sweet and scientific It makes sense, really. For a start, the techniques used in baking Ã¢â¬â stirring, mixing, kneading Ã¢â¬â are very similar to other proven stress relievers such as knitting or squeezing a stress ball. Chartered psychologist Dr Jill Owen explains: Ã¢â¬Å"Repetitive behaviour and rituals can be very effective in increasing focus and reducing stress. Countless studies have also found a strong connection between being creative and wellbeing. Focusing on a new icing technique means you donÃ¢â¬â¢t focus on individual pieces of information, which is why you may find the answer to the problem youÃ¢â¬â¢ve been stewing on all day the minute you bring your hot cross buns out of the oven. You also receive an extra shot of happiness when you see the positive reaction your baking has on other people. Then, of course, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s the eating. Tucking into a thick slab of apricot and ginger cake, a flaky millefeuille or a raspberry clafoutis subtly change our brain chemistry, making us altogether happier. The sweet sticky carbohydrates trigger the release of insulin into the blood, which clears out all the amino acids in the bloodstream apart from tryptophan, which is then converted into serotonin in your brain, that warm, fuzzy hormone that makes us want to hug people and smile a satisfied grin. That, in my opinion, is worth all the calories.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
In the Beginning The theory of evolution, formalized by Charles Darwin, is as much theory as is the theory of gravity, or the theory of relativity. Evolutionary theory is a scientific theory dealing with scientific data, not a system of metaphysical beliefs or a religion (Wilkins). Biological theories, and especially evolution, unlike the theories of physics, have been argued long and hard in social and political arenas. Even today, evolution is often not taught in primary schools. However, evolution is the binding force of all biological research. It is the unifying theme. Living organisms evolve through genetic changes over generations, and planets evolve through the processes of erosion and deposition. In paleontology, evolution gives workers a powerful way to organize the remains of past life forms, and better understand the one history of life. The history of thought about evolution in general, and paleontological contributions specifically, are often useful to the scientists of today. Science, like any iterative process, draws heavily from its history. We live on an ancient planet. In the Western world, however, people have long believed that Earth had a relatively recent beginning. In 1650, James Ussher, estimating from his close study of the Bible, calculated that Earth was created in 4004 B.C. (Feder 12). Although not everyone agreed with his calculations, until the nineteenth century most people in the Western world shared Bishop Ussher's view that Earth was relatively young and that its entire history was chronicled in ancient texts. During the nineteenth century, geologists and biologists accumulated evidence that Earth was much older than previously suspected. Their evidence for an ancient Earth came primarily from the fossilized remains of organisms found in sedimentary rocks. The geologists' guiding concepts were simple: Rocks form slowly by piling up of sediments, and younger rocks are deposited on top of older ones. A great canyon carved into sedimentary rocks may have a visible record of more than a billion years (Levin 4). Preserved within some rocks were fossils - the remains of organisms that lived while the sediments were accumulating. When older rocks are compared with younger ones, slight but significant differences can be observed among similar fossil organisms. The most famous example is fossil horses. The animals show an increase in size and a reduction of side toes Ã¢â¬ ¦ an increase in the height and complexity of teeth, and a deepening and lengthening of the skull (Levin 318). In The Beginning :: essays research papers fc In the Beginning The theory of evolution, formalized by Charles Darwin, is as much theory as is the theory of gravity, or the theory of relativity. Evolutionary theory is a scientific theory dealing with scientific data, not a system of metaphysical beliefs or a religion (Wilkins). Biological theories, and especially evolution, unlike the theories of physics, have been argued long and hard in social and political arenas. Even today, evolution is often not taught in primary schools. However, evolution is the binding force of all biological research. It is the unifying theme. Living organisms evolve through genetic changes over generations, and planets evolve through the processes of erosion and deposition. In paleontology, evolution gives workers a powerful way to organize the remains of past life forms, and better understand the one history of life. The history of thought about evolution in general, and paleontological contributions specifically, are often useful to the scientists of today. Science, like any iterative process, draws heavily from its history. We live on an ancient planet. In the Western world, however, people have long believed that Earth had a relatively recent beginning. In 1650, James Ussher, estimating from his close study of the Bible, calculated that Earth was created in 4004 B.C. (Feder 12). Although not everyone agreed with his calculations, until the nineteenth century most people in the Western world shared Bishop Ussher's view that Earth was relatively young and that its entire history was chronicled in ancient texts. During the nineteenth century, geologists and biologists accumulated evidence that Earth was much older than previously suspected. Their evidence for an ancient Earth came primarily from the fossilized remains of organisms found in sedimentary rocks. The geologists' guiding concepts were simple: Rocks form slowly by piling up of sediments, and younger rocks are deposited on top of older ones. A great canyon carved into sedimentary rocks may have a visible record of more than a billion years (Levin 4). Preserved within some rocks were fossils - the remains of organisms that lived while the sediments were accumulating. When older rocks are compared with younger ones, slight but significant differences can be observed among similar fossil organisms. The most famous example is fossil horses. The animals show an increase in size and a reduction of side toes Ã¢â¬ ¦ an increase in the height and complexity of teeth, and a deepening and lengthening of the skull (Levin 318).
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
The history of the world is hitherto marked by the antagonisms in the economic aspects of the society. Since the existence of hierarchical orders in societal relations in political and economic relations were conceptualized, the contradictions between and among the decisive forces in the production process have long been made brutal and more explosive than any other points in human history. Hence, the development of the capitalist mode of production and its dominance as the world's economic system gave way for the advancement of nation-states into imperialist powers of the modern world.Contradictions among the classes in the society, between the industrialized countries and industrialized versus the colonies and semi-colonies, only intensified the differences and irreconcilable economic interests of the nations. These contradictions gave way for most of the world's major catastrophic events like the First World War and the Second World War, being, in reality, war between imperialist and industrialized powers secure their insatiable interests for the control of the market.Such nature of class antagonisms reflected the exploitation and oppression that the motive forces experienced in the light of these economic restrictions in the present economic condition (Lenin 1916: IX). This essay would settle on the issues raised by the presence of the United States' vast economic, political, and social sphere of influence on most regions of the world. As the world's only remaining superpower, the United States of America, maintains its structure in presenting and directing the course of global diplomatic, military and economic affairs.US imperialist expansion would be studied in order to come up with the particular nature of the hegemony and provide necessary clarifications on the nature of imperialism, super-imperialism and inter-imperialism and if ever these terms are applicable and politically relevant in today's discussion of global relations. After the terror attacks become the focus of regional diplomatic and military roadmaps, United States role in overseas affairs became even more directed towards armed resolution of conflict as essential appendage of its imperialist hegemony (Stivachtis, 2007).Marxist analysis of the society in general and political economy in particular could mainly present the foundations of this discourse by which we would draw the explanation for such concepts of imperialism and monopoly capitalist hegemony in the economic, political, cultural and other societal structures that are essentially intertwined with this. To Marxists, Ã¢â¬Å"imperialismÃ¢â¬ is not simply the Ã¢â¬Å"trend towards expansionÃ¢â¬ or the Ã¢â¬Å"conquest of foreign lands,Ã¢â¬ as it is defined by most political scientists and sociologists.The word is used in a much more precise sense to describe the general changes which occurred in the political, economic and social activity of the big bourgeoisie of the advanced capitalist countries, begin ning in the last quarter of the 19th century. These changes were closely related to alterations in the basic structure of this bourgeoisie (Germain 1955). With this definition, there are still varied interpretations of imperialism even among Marxists.Vladimir Lenin's theoretical exposition on this subject has long been accepted widely after the Soviet Union molded a formidable economic and military superpower and directly/indirectly influenced the outcomes of revolutions in third world countries. The first and second world wars were the major eruption of these antagonisms and the world experienced an imperialist war over territories for the acquisition of raw materials for the industries and market for the surplus products of the capitalist western powers. A polarized global atmosphere boiled into wars that in reality, wars of expansion.The United States benefitted greatly from the war. It made the nation accumulate more neo-colonies after the defeat of the Axis powers in Europe and Asia. Hence, a conclusion can be derived from these events: the United States, after its economy faced a major crisis in the 1930's, needed war in order to boost its military industrial complex, obtain new territories as sources of industrial needs and market for overproduced goods, propel its strategic military positions overseas and contain the Soviet union's growing power and influence.Kautsky and Luxemburg, famous Marxists in Europe, clarified imperialism and presented yet another perspective on imperialist stage of the bourgeois capitalist system. Kautsky stated that imperialism is an absolute terminology to be applied to the interests of an industrial nation to expand its commercial realm by arguing that precisely an industrialized nation cannot sell all its products within industrialized nations so it has to look for nations with backward economies that do not have the technology and capacity to produce similar goods or products (Germain 1955).Cox stipulated the mechanics of how the United States was able to control foreign markets and flooded with surplus goods. He argued that the Ã¢â¬ËEmpire' dominated these backward or lagging economies through intimidation by use of the military, alliance with the local elite thus assuring an elite's government friendly, if not servile, to United States' imperialist interests (Cox 2004: 309). The reality of the economic basis of imperialist hegemony has not really subsided at the turn of the 21st century and even after the Socialist block has collapsed in the 1990's.In fact, the same contradictions n the political economy of the world, however, significant alterations have pervaded since and the resulting events are what the current United States' ruling class faces. Robert Cox noted the events which shaped the present international order as end products of centuries of societal evolutionary and revolutionary processes. First, he refreshed what French diplomacy baptized as Ã¢â¬Ëhyper-power' of the United States of America due to the collapse of the Soviet Union and the disintegration of a bipolar world.Second, environmental concerns have taken the center stage of international affairs because of unstable conditions in the biosphere, biotechnology and genetically modified organisms. Along with these, there is the economic dilemma which suggests that capitalism continues to contain a tendency of widening the gap between the rich and the poor; ethnic, national, religious and other reason for polarization have been reaffirmed and; the emergence of Ã¢â¬Ëirregular' activities pertained to as terrorism and other organized crime.Hence, in the light of the authority's inaction regarding these concerns, the public developed skepticism towards established institutions (Cox 2004: 318). Further delving on this particular reasons for the establishment of a new international order, Cox asserted that with all these, there must be a Ã¢â¬Ëpower' holding all these things completely so that this Ã¢â¬Ëp ower' could set forth the destruction or the genesis of an established reason.This Ã¢â¬Ëpower' poses a dilemma as to what nature does this power hold that even Cox tried to provide an acceptable definition. PowerÃ¢â¬ ¦ [Is] in a very general sense to mean whatever force can intentionally bring about change in the behavior of any of the diversity of agents in world political economy. States are obviously to be included among the agents. Military strength and the capacity for economic coercion are obviously to be included among the relevant forces.The problem is to infer from observation of what has happened what the key forces are and what agents are capable of wielding those forces (Cox 2004: 308). Current international scene is dominated by the United States but the economic and diplomatic influences are fast rescinding because of US hegemony in many aspects of world affairs. The US led war on terror and its coalition of the willing is a manifestation of an inherent crisis in a monopoly capitalist system.Military power now assumes the greatest role in preserving the existing order while its continued intervention in domestic and regional conflicts only isolates US hegemony from the collective of nations. This fragile condition of artificial harmony in a US controlled international scene radiated greater conflicts and majority of the nations initiated their independence from the economic influence of the US through the formation of a regional economic and political cooperation.The euro for example, attempted to present an alternative to the US dollar. Even if this attempt did not gain head on with the US dollar, its presence already showed that economic regionalism was developing into more stable formations and poses formidable challenge to US unilateralism (Cox 2004:314). The war on terror has unveiled the nature of US imperialism that it is an Ã¢â¬ËEmpire' that sought to expand its influence and domination wherever necessary and possible.Conflicts in th e Middle East and the terror attacks in the US re-opened the debating floors to the concerns of terrorism and the Ã¢â¬Ëdialectic' relation of Ã¢â¬Ëterrorism' and Ã¢â¬Ëwar on terror'. As Robert Cox puts it: Ã¢â¬ ¦terrorism is a violent reaction to Ã¢â¬ËEmpire'; and for dominant power the response to Ã¢â¬Ëterrorism' is an expansion of Ã¢â¬ËEmpire'. The two are joined in dialectic without end since the two contestants are not of the same orderÃ¢â¬ ¦ The physical elimination of Ã¢â¬Ëterrorists' by police and military action does not eliminate Ã¢â¬Ëterrorism'.It encourages more people to take up the role of terrorist. The only way this quagmire dialectic could end would be by transcending the conflict in a reestablished legitimacy (Cox 2004: 318). Accumulating the economic, political, cultural and ideological crisis of the United States' monopoly capitalist empire, various thinkers attempted to explain the nature of this Ã¢â¬ËEmpire'. The most common of these terminol ogies used to refer to US imperial structure are Ã¢â¬Ësuper-imperialism', Ã¢â¬Ëultra-imperialism' and Ã¢â¬Ëinter-imperialism'.Super-imperialism is more concerned with the mechanics of the economy and that evolution from classical imperialism to super-imperialism was caused by a reverse in the international scene where US surpassed its preeminent creditor status to a debtor status, hence, the worsening crisis of finance capital under the capitalist system. Ultra Imperialism is a term coined by Karl Kautsky as a theoretical conception of imperialism in the September 1914 issue of Die Neue Zeit. Kautsky articulated that capitalist could exist without wars and these industrialized nations need not to divide territories and markets rather form a cartel.Lenin quickly repudiated this assertion and stressed that ultra-imperialism understates the class antagonisms in an imperialist system and the contradictions were disregarded. Inter-imperialism on the other hand does not really offer a new conception of imperialism but only an earlier term used by Hobson to what Kautsky referred to as ultra-imperialism. In broadest sense, US imperialism maintains the exploitative conditions at present, the contradiction between and among industrial nations and between industrial nations and third world.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Land Reforms in Pakistan Land has always been a decisive element in deciding the social class structure in agrarian and rural societies. It is a status symbol, source of income, means of production and an important source of political and social influence. The agrarian structure inherited by Pakistan, after independence, was socially divisive and due to this very same reason it has been a matter of concern for policy makers since independence. Many agricultural reforms have been carried out in Pakistan since independence to eradicate this social division, improve the condition of tenants, abolish feudalism and to increase productivity but no major improvement has been seen as a result of these land reforms. This essay discusses about these land reform in detail and lays out the major attributes and agendas of these land reforms. It also debates about the major reasons which hindered the fair implementation of these land reforms. There have been six land reforms which will be discussed in detail. The reforms which will be discussed are: 1. The Land Reforms in Reverse 2. The Provincial Tenancy Act (1950s) 3. East Pakistan Acquisition and Tenancy Act, 1950 (Earlier Known as East Bengal State Acquisition and Tenancy Act, 1950) 4. The Land Reforms of 1959 (Report of the Land Reform Commission for West Pakistan, 1959) 5. Land Reforms Regulation, 1972 6. Land Reforms Act of 1977 The Land Reforms in Reverse Power of landlords increased after the creation of Pakistan. Ã¢â¬Å"The